initiator: Marsilius Georgius [Marsilio Zorzi] bajulus in Syria Venetorum
text: Oct. 1-31. Acre. Marsilius Georgius [Marsilio Zorzi] bajulus in Syria Venetorum lists Venetian possessions in the city and territory of Tyre. (I). He recounts how he was ordered by Doge Iacopo Tiepolo to provide an inventory of all Venetian possessions in the kingdom of Jerusalem, with a view to recovering those that were lost, and that in June 1242, shortly after his arrival in the East, the change of regime in the kingdom of Jerusalem had resulted in the abandonment of Tyre by the imperial bajulus and forces [Longobardi], who had confiscated Venetian properties and had refused to listen to his protests. He had appealed to Philippus de Monteforte dominus Toronis and others. Meanwhile, it had been arranged that Queen Alice of Cyprus, together with her husband Raul de Sansum, should seek the regency from the archbishop of Tyre, who was the patriarch of Jerusalem’s vicar. Her appointment was approved by the prelates and barones, with the tacit consent of the Commune of Acre, the Venetians, the Genoese and others. The Venetians contributed an armed galley to the recovery of Tyre, in return for which the queen, dominus Raul, dominus de Berito and dominus Philippus de Monforte promised to restore the Venetian possessions in and around Tyre. Marsilius went to Tyre with 30 well armed horseman on 9 June 1242 and the city was recovered in 3 days and the citadel in 28 days with great effort. But the queen and the barones then delayed the restoration of the properties and the viccomes terre apprehended a Venetian suspected of theft. He was released to the magister of the Knights Templar, who handed him and other Venetians over to Marsilius. The queen and others justified their refusal to hand back Venetians possessions on the grounds that only the legitimate king, Conrad, could do so. (II). The Venetians have a third part of the city of Tyre, the bounds of which are well known, together with a curia with the same rights as the royal curia. King John of Jerusalem had unjustly removed the Suriani from Venetian jurisdiction, but this right has been restored. Another king had long ago challenged the right of the Venetians to judge homicide and theft, but this right is reestablished, with the consent of the castellani, Ugo Amirantus and Girardus Pisanus, and the vicecomes Salvazu miles. The dominus Beriti, who is governing the royal section of the city, handed over a Venetian from Cyprus called Iacobinus Barberius, who had stolen more than 20 besants from one of his milites, and the castellanus Girardus handed over another who had stolen sugar cane. Marsilius records that the Venetians had recovered their jurisdictional and other rights over the Jews [Iudei] living in their third, which had been lost for 50 years. The Jews now answer to the Venetian curia and every male on reaching the age of 15 pays a capitation tax of 1 besant each year on the Feast of All Saints. Their names are: Simol, who has 2 grown-up sons called Hebe and Mahamar, Mahafa, Daniel, Moyse, Symo, Harham and Brahi. The Venetians have recovered their jurisdiction, retained by the crown for a long time, over the Syrian dye-workers [Suriani texarini] in their third of the city, who pay 2 cartata a month for each dye-pit. The Venetians have also recovered their rights, lost to the crown, over all who sell wine, oil, candles and meat and over the ypotecarii who sell spices and other merchandise. No bannum is now imposed on the city without Venetian consent, whereas the Venetians can impose and exact banna freely on their third. Up to the present an officer called a matesep, in Venetian terms a iusticiarius, established by King John, has been responsible for banna throughout Tyre, but now any bannum in the Venetian third is administered by a compatriot called Iohannes Palami. The Venetians have revoked the ancient custom that any pork butcher in their third should pay the curia regis a tax of 4 denarii called tuazo. (III). Marsilius provides the forms of oath made by the judges or jurats [iudices see iurati] in the Venetian curia at Tyre and by those living in the Venetian third of the city. Purchases of houses in the Venetian third should be made in the Venetian curia. The purchaser should pay the court 3 besants, while the notarius who draws up the deed and the plazarius should be paid a quarter of a besant each. (IV). (1) The church of St Mark in Tyre, founded and built by Venice, has full parochial rights and is exempt from the ordinary jurisdiction of the archbishop. (2) It possesses the following properties. A foncium at the city gate, when one comes up from the catena, extending to the east a little beyond the church of St Mark. 2 stationes towards the plathea, leased for 9 and 12 besants respectively. A statio below of the portico of St Mark, rented for 1 besant a year. An oven at the head of the fonticum, from the returns of which the Venetian commune takes three fifths and the church of St Mark two fifths, according to an agreement made by the baiulus dominus Dominicus Ocotante and the plebanus [of the church], relating to this and to another oven which was destroyed in an earthquake, the rents of which are divided in the same way. A house at the head of the ruga sancti Marci, left as an eleemosynary gift to St Mark by Michael Lunizo, which is destroyed except for a volta that returns 2 besants a year. A garden attached to the house that dominus Thomas Dulce bought for the church, of which he was procurator, for 25 besants; it returns 1 besant and a quarter a year. A house, volta and cistern, adjoining on 2 sides the houses of the sons of Damianus, which Maria Cauco left as an eleemosynary grant to the church and returns 2 besants a year. A garden outside the city, returning 50 besants a year, bounded on the east by land of the Venetian commune that was once a garden, on the west by a canal [rivulum aque] flowing from the aqueduct [de conducto], on the south by a locus called Serram and on the north by the public way. 4 voltae with a curia next to the south side of the church, where the clergy live with the plebanus. (3) A church in the Venetian third of the city, dedicated to St James, is under the jurisdiction of the bishop of Torcello. Under the church to the north there are 4 stationes and next to it to the south are 2 stationes, with a volta, over which is a great chamber [camera] where the priest [presbyter] of the church resides. The church owns a ruined house, acquired after the earthquake, which is held by magister Habotus, paying an annual rent of one half of a besant. Houses occupied by Thosanus Maurecenus of Venice and Pantaleus – the last being once in the possession of Rolandus Contareni – are known to pay each 1 rotula of oil every year to the church of St Mark, although this requires investigation. Another church, dedicated to St Nicholas, is owned by the bishop of Isola, with 6 stationes in a row to the north along the street from the church, each of which owes 2 and a half besants a year, and with on the other side of the road another house, with a statio below and a little curia and the cistern called Dulce, owing rent of 8 besants. There is also a statio next to the south side of the church, together with 2 small stationes with a small chamber over one of them, which are for most of the year vacant but when rented return 24 denarii a month, and are bordered to the east by a road that runs into another one, and towards the west by the house built by Helia in which Tior burgensis resides. A ruined fonticum, destroyed in an earthquake, belongs to the episcopus Caurole and adjoins to the east and north the house of Petrus Scandalionis and on the west the house of the sons of Petrus Ruffus and the houses of the Venetian Jews, and to the north a public way that runs before the churches of St James and St Nicholas. (V). The Venetian commune owns the following baths, ovens and houses in its third of the city of Tyre. (1) A house designated for the commune with 2 curie, where the bajulus lives, and which is bordered to the east by a vacant pecia terre that belongs to Simeon Bonus of the quarter of St Barbara in Venice, to the west by the public way that runs next to the square [trivia] before St Mark, to the south by a vacant pecia terre belonging to Thomas Dulce and partly by the house of Pisanus miles, and towards the north by a public way running before the church of St Mark. (2) A pecia terre on which there were houses destroyed by the earthquake, bordering on the north by the city wall, on the south by a public way that runs before the church of St Mark, on the west by the oven and fonticum of St Mark, and on the east by the house[s] of Thomas Pititonus, Leo Michael and other Venetian burgenses. (3) A bath house near the church of St Mark, returning in rent 100 besants and bordered on the west by the house of the [canons of the Holy] Sepulchre, on the south by the public way, on the east by the houses of Thomas Dulce and the public way, and on the north by a pecia terre belonging to St Mark. Thomas Dulce has 4 upper rooms [camerae], while the commune of Venice owns the lower part. (4) 2 other bath houses, returning in rent 165 besants and situated after the square [trivia] before the church of Holy Cross that belongs to the archbishopric of Tyre, bordered to the east by the public way, on the south partly by the public way that runs before the square of the Holy Cross and partly by the house of Dominicus Buctus, on the north by the public way. (5) An oven in the ruga sancti Nicolai, returning in rent 30 besants and bordered on the east by the public way, on the west...., on the south by a vacant pecia terre belonging to the Venetian commune, on the north by the public way that runs before the church of St Nicholas. (6) Another oven, called the Furnus Oscurus, situated in the district called Cobeib, returning 25 besants and bordered on the east..., on the west by the public way, on the north by another public way and on the south... (7) A vacant pecia terre with a well in it, next to the oven in the ruga sancti Nicolai and bordered on the east by the public way that runs before the houses of Petrus presbyter and dominus Monriale miles, on the west by the house of Rainaldus de Empas, on the south.... on the north by the oven. Monriale and the priest each hold half of this land and each owe the commune a rent of 12 carcti, payable on the Feast of St Mark. The bajulus can retake possession of this land whenever he wants. (8) An oven, destroyed in the earthquake, which is alongside the oven of St Mark, already mentioned, and borders partly on the pecia terre of the son of Simon Bonus and partly on the mansio of Iohannes Tyri. It borders on the north a house of the commune of Venice, on the south... (9) A volta at the head of the ruga sancti Marci, over which is an unroofed house which was bought by Iohannes Tonesto when he was bajulus. It is bordered on the east by the public way that runs towards [the church of] St Peter, on the west partly by the house of Rolandus Contarenus and partly by the house of Iohannes Tyri, on the north by the public way that runs before St Mark, on the south.... (10) Another pecia terre is bordered on the east by the boundary between the Venetian third of the city and the royal domain, on the west by a house and curia belonging to dominus Manasses Dulce, the Venetian vicecomes, on the north by the wall of the city next to the sea, and on the south by the house of Nicolas, which he bought from dominus Iacobus Barocius. (11) Another oven, destroyed by the earthquake, which is bordered on the east by the public way, on the west by a house that belonged to a Turcopolus called Belmene, on the north by the public way and on the south by the house... (12) A little house with 2 volte and 2 curie, which passed to the commune when the Turcopolus called Belmene died without heirs. When it is leased it returns 1 besant a year. It is bordered on the east by the commune’s oven, which is destroyed, on the west by the road, on the north by another public way, on the south... (13) A pecia terre in the part of Tyre called Baragese. It is enclosed on three sides by public ways and on the south by empty land belonging to the Knights Templar. A little pecia terre that Marsilius Georgius bajulus bought for 5 besants extends from it. (14) Dominus Thomas Dulce has a statio in the ruga sancti Nicolai, given him by a certain bajulus, for which a rent of 2 besants is paid annually on the Feast of All Saints. Its boundaries.... (15) A house on an upper level [solarium], that belonged to the son of Helel, who died without having a near relative while Marsilius Georgius has been baiulus. It borders on the east... (16) A great piece of land in the Venetian district called Baragese, where ships are drawn up. It is bordered on the east by the port of the city, on the west by a road that runs between the land and the houses of Thomasinus Dulce and Andreas Galafarius, on the north by a road between the land and the royal arsenal [arsena regis] and on the south by a road between the land and the house of Thomas Dulce. (17) The Venetian commune receives an annual rent of 54 besants from the fonticum of Tyre, granted by the regency of the kingdom [qui habent regimen terre pro rege] in exchange, it is said, for the savoneria and tentoria. The rent is payable in 4 instalments, beginning on the Feast of All Saints. It is said the bajulus dominus Dominicus Acotanto closed the tentoria whenever the rent was not fully paid. (18) In the Venetian third of the city there is a tower-like house over the road leading to the catena, which was destroyed in the earthquake and once belonged to Iohannes Garabellus, who is believed to have died without heir. It is capable of being rebuilt at a suitable time for the commune’s benefit. (VI). The commune has the following possessions in the vicinity of Tyre. (1) A sugar press [masera ubi efficitur zucarum], which has not been in use for the last 22 years. (2) A large pecia terre, situated in a great fundum next to the sugar press, where sugar cane is planted.The sugar cane plantation is irrigated by water from the Fons Dei, which flows next to the sugar press. The Venetians own a third part of the spring, and pay a third of the costs and labour of maintaining it, so that the king sends 2 men and the Venetians 1 to repair the canal [conductum aque]. Only the king and the Venetians can draw water from this source in the proportions two-thirds and one-third. The land is bordered on the east by the canal and on the west partly by the sea-shore and partly by the land held in fief [feudum] from the commune by Rolandus Contarenus and Guillielmus Iordanis. To the north is land belonging to the king, separated by a stream or ditch. To the south is land that now belongs to the Genoese, separated by a stream. The land measures about 8 caruge, which the Venetians call masi. It is customary for whoever works the land, whether planting sugar cane or seed, to render to the Venetian vicecomes a third part of the harvest. The gleanings [palea] are a perquisite of the baiulus, by grant of the doge. (3) A pecia terre on the other side of the canal, which is large enough to be worked in one day by 3 pairs of oxen [paribus bouum trium (?)]. It is bordered on the east, north and south by land belonging to the abbey of Mt Sion and on the west by the canal. It is irrigated by water from the canal. (4) A pecia terre called Bellemet, which is large enough to be sown with 26 royal modii of seed. It is bordered on the east by the land of the casale called Thalabie, which is owned by the dominus Sydonie, although the Venetians have claims on the casale. To the west and south it borders on a stream, separating it from the land of Rolandus Contarenus, which he holds in feudum from the Venetians. To the north is the stream separating it from the casale of Thalabie. (5) A mill near the city which has one mill stone and one water source [austus aque] called Portus de Conducto Fontis Dei. It returns annually 140 besants. It is surrounded by royal land that is now possessed by the Genoese. (6) A mill upstream on which the Venetians have claims, because it once belonged to the commune, although for a failure to fulfil the terms of a lease (in appalto] it passed to the king. This mill returns annually 100 besants. (7) A mill called the Molendinum de Caneto, which had been empty and ruined for nearly 50 years but is now repaired and milling. It is leased and is expected to return 50 besants in the coming year. It is constructed with 2 mill stones, but at present employs only 1. It uses water from the Portus de Conducto Fontis Dei, near the archbishop’s garden. Above the canal next to the Portus is the Ficus Faraonis and next to the Ficus a stream, carrying water from the aqua Yemis and flowing below a bridge, unites with the water from the Portus to run this mill. It is bordered on the east by royal land, on the west by a stream dividing it from property of the archbishop of Tyre, on the north by land belonging to the dominus de Sydonia and the south by a stream that runs into the sea. (8) A pecia terre, which for about 40 years was empty, but now has a vineyard planted in it. It is bordered to the east by a stream that separates it from royal land and flows to a bath-house called the Balneum Saladini. To the west is the public way, separating it from the vineyard of the Knights Templar. To the north there is royal land, on which the king has a metal furnace [?ubi rex facit aram] and to the south a vineyard belonging to a Surianus called Iosep. (9) A pecia terre that was once a garden, with a ruined cistern [barchilia] in which water was collected to water the garden. It is bordered to the east by land that belonged to Homodeus scriba regis, to the west by a public way, to the north by a vineyard that now belongs to dominus Rainaldus miles de Empam, and to the south by the garden of the Venetian church of St Mark. (VII). The following are the Venetian casalia in the territory of Tyre. (1) Casale Batiole, with gastine, one of which is called Mensara. It is in the mountains. To the east, at the top of the mountain, the casale and gastina adjoin a pecia terre which in Arabic is called Galaelharge. To the west is the sea, to the north a stream which descends from the mountains under a bridge called Pons Tyri and to the south it is bordered by the mountain. Water springs from the summit, which is in the casale, and flows as far as Salus Frei. There are in the casale 20 caruge tilled by rustici, of which 2 caruge are free. Each caruca is sown annually with 9 modii of either wheat [granum] or barley, but an equivalent amount of land, called garet, is left over to be sown the following year, in which it will be partly sown with about 1 modius of vegetables for each caruca. The harvest is divided so that the Venetians have one quarter and the rustici three-quarters, but the Venetians have an additional 1 modius of wheat for every caruca. The personal returns made by the rustici involve the presentation for every caruca on Christmas, Ash Wednesday [carnisprivium] and Easter of 1 chicken, 10 eggs, half a rotula of cheese and 12 denarii in place of a salma of wood. These are perquisites of the baiulus at the will of the doge. The headman [preposicius casalis], who the Venetians call a gastaldio[nes] is held on either Ash Wednesday or Easter to present the baiulus with a goat [edus], if demanded. Otherwise the headman is freed from dues. All gleanings [palea] belong to the commune. (2) A casale called Mahallie, which is situated on the mountain. To east is a royal casale called Sahaphie. To the west is a casale called Zaharie, which belongs to dominus Iohannes Dasce. To the north is a royal casale called Melequie and to the south is a casale that is part of the feudum held from Venice by Guillielmus Iordanus on behalf of his wife. In the casale there are 8 caruce tilled by rustici, of which half a caruca is free. Each caruca is sown with 9 modii of wheat or barley, and an equivalent amount of land, called by them garet [and by the Venetians] mazatica, is held back for a year and is sown with vegetables, at the rate of 1 modius of seed for every caruca. The Venetians take a quarter of the crop and the rustici three-quarters. 1 chicken, 10 eggs and 12 denarii in place of wood is owed for each caruca on Christmas and half a rotula of cheese on Ash Wednesday and Easter. (3) The casale of Hanoe is shared with the canons of the Templum Domini, with the canons having two-thirds and the Venetians a third. For a long time the Venetians had no more than an eighth, but they have now recovered their rights. There are 15 caruce in the casale, of which the Venetians have 5. Half a caruca is free. The Venetian commune has 2 homliges in the casale, called Memur and Hagmed, each of whom has 2 sons. The casale is bordered to the east.... The Venetians take one-third of the harvest and the rustici two-thirds, while the Venetians are presented with 1 chicken, 10 eggs and 12 denarii in place of wood at Christmas and half a rotula of cheese on Ash Wednesday and Easter. (4) The casale called Theiretenne is shared with the king, who has two thirds to the Venetians one third. For a long time the Venetians had no more than an eighth, but they have now recovered their rights. If rustici from throughout the casale are judged and fined for any misdeed, the king takes two-thirds of the penalty and the Venetians one-third. There are 30 caruce, of which 3 and a half are free. Each caruca is sown with 8 modii and the land called mazadica, which they call garet, is partly sown with vegetables, at the rate of 1 modius of seed for each caruca. The casale is bordered on the east by the casale called Maharone, of which Guillielmus Iordanus holds one-third in feudum from Venice on behalf of his wife, on the west partly by a royal casale called Focai, partly by a casale called Zobie and partly by a casale called Farachyen, that belongs to Bartolomeus Caym miles, on the north by another casale belonging to Bartolomeus called Caffardebael and by a casale called Toglif, which Rolandus Contarenus holds in feudum from the commune of Venice, and on the south by a royal casale called Aiffi. There are in the Venetian part of the casale 12 homliges, leaving aside their children. The names of the rustici are: Rays Sade, Rays Haindoule, Rays Meged, Meiram, Braym, Seid, Mahommet, Helel, Habdelragman, Selem, Noreldoule and Baraque. The Venetians have a third part of the harvest and the rustici two-thirds. They owe for each caruca on the 3 Feastdays 1 chicken, 10 eggs and 12 denarii in place of wood, together with half a rotula of cheese on Ash Wednesday and Easter. (5) The casale called Homeire is entirely owned by Venice. There are 6 caruge of which half a caruga is free. The Venetians have a quarter of the harvest and the rustici three-quarters. Each caruca is sown with 9 modii of wheat or barley and in the garet each caruca with 1 modius of vegetables. It is bordered on the east by a casale called Dordoghie, on the west by a casale called Soaffi, which Rolandus Contarenus holds in feudum from the commune of Venice, on the north by a royal casale called Tahirefelse and on the south by a casale called Maron, which was once held by Guido Scandalionis and is now held by his little son. The Venetians have 3 homliges in the casale. The names of these rustici are: Rays Megid, Covaha and Habdelvaif, leaving aside their sons. The rustici owe 1 chicken, 10 eggs and 12 denarii in place of wood at Christmas and on Ash Wednesday they owe half a rotula of cheese. (6) When the rustici living the commune’s casalia change the seed-corn to improve the harvests they present for every caruca 1 small pullet, which is granted to the baiulus with other services by the doge. The rustici also owe one day’s labour service [pro angaria] for every caruca, as do the rustici of the king. (VIII). A list of rear-fiefs, granted to knights by the doge of Venice at the time of the capture of Tyre. (1) Vitalis Pantaleus, called Malvisinus, the son of Iohannes Pantaleus of the quarter of St Julian in Venice, was given in feudum the following properties. (i) A casale on the mountain called Dairrham. On the east is a royal casale called Zebiquim that belonged to the feudum of dama Guida Contarena, over which Venice has claims. On the west is the land of a casale called Fetonia, in which the Venetians also have rights, because it was part of the feudum dama Guida Gontarena held of Venice, although it is now possessed by the dominus de Sydonia, who bought it from a miles, who was established in it by comes Henricus when he was lord of the land. On the north is a casale called Mahallie, now owned by the commune of Venice, which was part of the feudum of dama Guida. To the south is a royal casale called Hasye, on which Venice has claims since it was part of the feudum of dama Guida. The rustici of Dairrham consist of Hebdelmen with 3 sons and a brother. (ii) A casale called Gaifiha, which is situated on the hillside. On the east is a land touching a cava called Cava dame Guide Contarene, over which Venice has claims because it was part of her feudum. On the west is casale Batiole. On the north the casale touches a stream that runs into the sea. On the other side of the stream is a casale held by the king called Ihanie, in which Venice again has claims as part of the feudum of dama Guida Cantarena. On the south is a quastina belonging to Batiole called Mensore. (iii) A casale called Maharona which has gastine called Beldamon, Iordei, Mezarha, Ursa, Boreig, Torneza, Ras, Lambrha, Elmunie, Lalche, Mezara de Zote, Derdros, Bisilie and Remedied. A third of the casale attaches to the feudum; two-thirds belong to the king. It is bordered on the east by casalia called Derentare and Liavum, which belong to the lordship of Throron, the boundary of which is marked by a stream flowing down from the mountain. To the west is the land of the casale called Terentene, of which Venice has a third and the king two-thirds. On the north is a casale called Ioie, which was in the feudum that dama Guida held of the commune and which the Venetians claim. On the south is the casale called Sagnomie, which belongs to the sons of Gualterius Morellus, and the casale called Dairrhamos. The following rustici are homolige of the casale: Gadir with his 3 sons, Bram with 5 sons, Saod with his brother, Nagime with 2 sons, Mere with his brother, Selem son of Timam and Selem’s sons, Bram le prevost the son of Megatel, Mahimet son of Sahade, Casib with his son. (iv) 2 gardens. They are bordered on the east by a garden belonging to the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem. On the west is a garden held by the son of the late Ioannes Bernardus, who lives in Acre. On the north is the sea and sea-shore and on the south is the public way. (v) A pecia terre called Una Fossa, which is sown with 6 or 7 modii of wheat. On the east is the land of the commune of Venice, which is planted with sugar cane. On the west is land that belonged to the son of Buzicarus. On the north is the public way. On the south is land held by the church of SS Cosmas and Damian, over which Venice has claims. (vi) A gastina called Belemed, situated above the canal. On the east is casale Talabie. On the west is the aqueduct. On the north is land of the Pisans. On the south is land belonging to the archbishop, and Ficus Faratinis and a stream. (vii). The feudum is now held by Guiliellmus Jordanus, on behalf of his wife, who is of the family of Pantaleo. Guiliellmus and his wife live in a house with an oven which is attached to the feudum. On the east is the public way that runs by the church of Holy Cross. On the west is the curtivum of Manases Dulce vicecomes and the house of Samuel, who has died. On the north is the road that goes to the cemetery, next to the Holy Cross. On the south is the curdivum of Balduinus Bonvisinus. (viii) The crown unjustly detains a casale called Cafardani, with a castle, a third part of which was held by the feudum. The casale is bordered.... Also detained are rents totalling 60 besants, drawn on the meat markets [?cassaria], sale of candles [busini], sale of sugar [zalamelli] and other revenues that are itemized in deeds held by the commune. (2) The feudum of Rolandus Contarenus consists of the following. (i) A casale called Soafim, in which there are 14 caruge. This borders on the east partly with the casale of Terrafalse, which is held by the crown but on which Venice has claims, because it was part of the feudum of dama Guida, and partly with casale Homehite, held by the commune of Venice. On the west is a casale called Amosie, which is part of the feudum of Rolandus. On the north is a casale which the son of Guido Scandalionis holds of the crown. On the south is a casale called Dairchanom, which the son of Guido Scandalionis also holds of the king, but on which Venice has claims because it belonged to dama Guida. The homlige in the casale of Sohafim are Sob, Rays Sereg and Hasisbelmesd. (ii) A casale called Hanosie, in which there are 12 caruce. On the east is the casale of Sohafim. On the west is a casale of the archbishop of Tyre called Bedias. On the south is a casale called Dercanon. On the north is a casale called Lasachye. The homlige in the casale are Rasa.... (iii) A third part, consisting of of 10 caruce, of the casale called Feniom. On the east is a royal casale called Anderquise, of which Venice claims a third. On the west is a casale called Beffele belonging to the abbey of St Mary of the Valley of Jehoshaphat. On the south is a casale called Terrejebeneparti, of which Venice claims a third. On the north is a casale held by dominus Engaram. The following homliges reside in the casale of Feniom: Mahalla, Selmen, Hali, Habs, Bellala and Halil. (iv) A third part of the casale called Tolliffif, consisting of 4 caruge. To the east is the land of a casale called Megedel, belonging to the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem, of which Venice claims a third part. To the west is a casale called Terretenne, a third of which belongs to Venice. To the north is a casale called Cafardebael, which is held by Bertholomeus de Caym and of which Venice claims a third part. To the south is a casale called Ioie, which is possessed by Hugo Amiratus and of which Venice also claims a third part. (v) A pecia terre, situated next to the Fons Dei above the aqueduct that runs into the city of Tyre. It can be sown with around 30 modii of wheat. On the east it borders partly on the land of a casale called Derina that belongs to the canons of the Holy Sepulchre and partly on land of the Venetian commune called Bellemet. On the west is the aqueduct and a pecia terre belonging to the archbishop, but is claimed to be part of this feudum. On the south is the casale of Darrina belonging to the canons of the Holy Sepulchre. On the north is a stream flowing between this and land of the commune of Venice. (vi) A pecia terre called Fossa. On the east is a road running between this land and the commune’s land. On the west is the sea shore. On the north is a pecia terre belonging to the church of SS Cosmas and Damian. On the south is the land of the commune of Venice. The uncle of Rolandus sold this land with the agreement of dominus Pantaleo Barbo, but Vitalis Galafat, the guardian [tuctor] of Rolandus, bought it back for 75 besants in the time when dominus Stefanus Iustinianus was baiulus. (vii) As part of his feudum, Rolandus has a house in the Venetian third of the city of Tyre, before [the church of] St Peter. On the east is the street [ruga] that runs before St Peter. On the west is the church of the Greci. On the south is the house belonging to the dominus de Berito, which had been part of the feudum of dama Guida. On the north is the house of Ioannes Balneator. (IX). The Venetians share Casale Betheron with the archbishop of Tyre. (1). The archbishop, however, holds back the following from the Venetians. (i) A pecia terre which the prepositus casalis of the archbishop possesses. It is planted with olive trees. To the east is the pecia terre belonging to Nesim, a rusticus of the archbishop from the casale of Tairedebe. To the north is a pecia terre [worked by] Habdelhoheb. To the south is a pecia terre held by Hagmed, the son of Melaeb. This land is large enough for it to be worked by 2 pairs of oxen in one day and therefore is reckoned by the Saraceni to be 2 carruce. It has 40 olive trees on it and returns annually 5 besants. It has been held back from the Venetians, to whom it rightly belongs, for 50 years: from the time when Saladin was sultan, when it was worked by Mufac, a rusticus of the Venetians, in the time of his father. (ii) A pecia terre called Carobleri and held by the prepositus. To the east is land, no longer worked, which was held by a rusticus called Behala. To the west is land held by Venetian rustici. To the south is land held by the prepositus of the archbishop. To the north is land held by Venetian rustici. There are c.25 olive trees on the land, which is large enough to be worked in one day by 2 pairs of oxen. It returns annually c.4 besants. It has been unlawfully held back for as long as has been the previously mentioned pecia, being worked by Mufac, the Venetian rusticus, in the time of his father. (iii). A pecia terre, held by the prepositus, called Terra de Sarde. To the east is a wine press. To the west is land held by a rusticus of the archbishop called Hamed. To the north is land held by the prepositus. To the south is the public way. There are 2 fig trees and 4 olive trees on this land, which can be worked in one day by 1 pair of oxen and returns annually to its lord c.2 besants. It has been held back unlawfully as long as the others above, being worked by the Venetians’ rusticus Mufac in the time of his father. (iv) A pecia terre situated next to a spring [fons], with 40 olive trees. It is held by Basalag, a rusticus of the archbishop, and returns to its lord annually 6 besants. It is large enough to be worked by 2 pairs of oxen in one day. It borders... (v) The rustici present for each caruca 1 chicken, 10 eggs and 12 denarii in place of wood every Christmas and half a modius of cheese on Ash Wednesday and Easter. (vi) Held back from the Venetians is as much of the communally farmed land of the casale as can be sown with 9 royal modii of wheat and which returns c.30 besants. The Venetians have tried to recover this every 10 years for 40 years. (vii) A vineyard possessed by Bosalag, the rusticus of the archbishop. To the east and north is the mountain. To the west is a vineyard held by Raffa, a rusticus of the archbishop of Tyre. To the south is a vineyard, which ought to be Venetian and is held by a rusticus called Megelsachays. Before vines were planted this land was worked by Venetian rustici, but it was taken and planted with vines by the archbishop at the time of the capture of Damietta. It returns to the lord a third part of the fruits, totalling c. 10 besants. (viii) A vineyard possessed by Naym, the son of Fecto, a rusticus of the archbishop. To the east is [the vineyard of] Megelsarchais. To the west is the vineyard of a rusticus of the archbishop called Sade. To the north is a vineyard belonging to the archbishop and held by a rusticus called Habdeloeb. To the south is land belonging to the archbishop. The third of the fruits returned annually to the lord come to c. 4 besants. This used to be empty land and was worked by the rustici of the Venetians, but 5 years ago it was transferred to the archbishop’s curia. (ix) A vineyard held back for a long time by the archbishop, which is worked by Sideom the son of Boali. To the east and west are Venice’s vineyards worked by its rustici. To the north is an olive grove belonging to the archbishop and worked by a rusticus called Naym. To the south is a vineyard of the archbishop, worked by a rusticus called Mesied. A third part of the fruits come to 6 besants. (x) A vineyard held by a rusticus called Feebet, who 20 years ago took it by force from the Venetian rusticus Mufac. To the east is an olive grove belonging to the archbishop and held by the said Fehebet. To the west is a vineyard belonging to the archbishop and held by the prepositus casalis. To the north are Venetian vineyards, held by the commune’s rustici. To the south is a vineyard belonging to the archbishop and held by the rusticus Zar. A third part of the harvest total 3 besants. (xi) A vineyard possessed by the rusticus Thomanus, which the Venetian rusticus Mufac worked 25 years ago, before it became a vineyard. To the east is the vineyard possessed by the rusticus Zar but is claimed by Venice. To the west are Venetian vineyards held by the commune’s rustici. To the north is the vineyard of the archbishop, held by his rusticus Raffa. To the south is a vineyard belonging to the archbishop but held by Venice’s rusticus Maumhet, who pays dues to the archbishop. A third part of the harvest comes annually to c. 2 and a half besants. (xii) 2 houses, of which 1 is held by the archbishop’s prepositus casalis and the other by his nephew called Helem. They used to be lived in by Venetian rustici called Hoibeid and Thacam and have been held back for 10 years. They each return annually 3 chickens, 3 royal solidi, 30 eggs and 1 rotula of cheese. (xiii) 3 pigsties [arae], of which one is held by a rusticus of the archbishop called Hoese, another by Raffa and the third by the prepositus casalis. (2) Venice enjoys the following properties and rights in the casale of Betheron. (i) 3 vineyards. In a good harvest these produce for the Venetians 3 salmae vini de camello, which is the equivalent of 6 biguncidii vini de Venecia. (ii) 100 olive trees returning annually 4 or 5 besants, when there is fruit. (iii) 5 caruce of land, comprising that sown annually by the Venetians’s rustici with 12 modii of wheat, and terra gariti, which the Venetians call macatica or terra frata, which is sown annually with 3 modii of vegetables. A third part of the harvests comes to c. 20 modii of wheat and 10 modii of vegetables and other crops. (iv) The Venetian rustici in the casale are Mufac and his son Hasem, Mathar, Mufac’s brother who has a 5-year-old son called Josef, and Mahomet Elly, who has 2 sons, Hismael and Chailil, aged 5 and 4 respectively. (v) The two parts of the casale of Betheron owned by the archbishop comprise 15 caruce. 2 are held by the prepositus casalis and one of these is free, making it worth 3 of the others. Of the others, one each is held by Alem, Megehed, Hali son of Naym, Braym, Gibrim, Zaar, Fehd, Homeil, Meuse, Mesade, Hamie, Hagmed and Raffa. They sow 4 or more modii of wheat in every caruca and 20 modii of vegetables on the terra de gareto, when they plough it, together with barley and other crops. The archbishop has in his 2 parts 2040 olive trees. (X). A list of Venetian revenues and possessions which have been unlawfully detained by the king or private persons in the city of Tyre. (1). Certain revenues, which should have come to Venice through its possession of a third part of the city, have been lost, although it is not known how. (i) A third part of the revenues of the catena, which in this year totalled 480 besants. King John freed all the Suriani living in his part of the city from paying dues to the catena, whereupon the Venetian Suriani, who were not exempt, migrated to the royal part. (ii) The returns of the landward gates, together with a fonticum in the Venetian third, in which there are scales [statera] for weighing merchandise [mercimonia] to be sold. The revenue in this year is 1900 besants. (iii) A fonticum in the Venetian third, selling musical instruments. The revenue this year is 500 besants. (iv) From butchery [macellum] and the tax tuazo the revenue this year is 400 besants. (v) From the measuring of wheat and all types of grain, of wine, oil and sugar cane [ex mellis] the revenue this year is 310 besants. (vi) From glass [de vitreo] the revenue this year is 350 besants. (vii) From sesame oil the revenue this year is 160 besants. (viii) From lime works [ex calce] the revenue is 90 besants. (ix) From the fishery the revenue is 70 besants. (x) From beer [ex vino cervese], made from barley and called focay, the revenue is 22 besants. (xi) From milk the revenue is 20 besants. (xii) The Venetians claim to share rights with the crown over a vaulted street [ruga] running from the catena to the gate of Tyre. In the royal part is a fonticum the Pisans bought from the king. Afterwards the Pisans built a church against [super] the vault and gate of the city, which extends into the Venetian part by 5 feet, although no one can remember when they did so. Bread is sold under the gate and vault, and the Venetians now receive some revenue from the vicecomes. (2). The following houses are claimed in the city of Tyre. (i). The house in which dominus Ugo Amiratus resides, having it as the dowry of his wife, the daughter of Zunzulinus Gazellus. It is not known why the house came to belong to Zunzulinus, because it had been the residence of the Venetian baiulus when he lived in Tyre. (ii) A great house in the Venetian third of the city. When the marchio Montisferati had been lord of the kingdom it had been used for minting money. For unknown reasons, the marchio gave it to Ansaldus Bonvisini and it is possessed by his son Balduinus Bonvisini. (iii) A house in the ruga sancti Nicolay which domina Raimunda, a widow, holds as her dowry. To the east is the road running to the church of St Mary of the Greeks. To the west.... To the south is the road running before St Nicholas. To the north.... The house ought to revert to the Venetian commune after Raimunda’s death and in the meantime cannot be alienated. (XI). A list of the casalia and possessions given in feudum by the doge and commune of Venice at the time of the capture of Tyre to dominus Rolandus Contarenus for the service of 3 milites and an account of their passing to Dama Guida Contarena of the family of Gradonicus and their loss. (1). Casalia held in full were: Lator which is in la Cava, Fetonie, Melequie, Ramadie, Ihannie, Sebequin, Talabie, Azgie, Hameisie, Zaharie, Sahasie, Conoise. (2) Casalia in which the fief-holder held one third: Haiff, Focai, Iohie, Teirefelsei. (3) A house in the Venetian third of the city of Tyre which is now held by the dominus de Berito. To the east is the public way that runs before the church of St Peter. To the west is the church of St Mary of the Greeks. To the north is the house of the present Rolandus Contarenus minor. To the south... Pantaleo Barbus lived in this house when he was baiulus. (4) When Rolandus Contarenus maior died, leaving no heir, the baiulus at the time wished to repossess the feudum for the commune, but dama Guida, the widow of Rolandus, resisted, placed herself under the protection of the king and held it until her death, when she made the king her heir. It is now held by the crown. (XII). (1) List of casalia, claimed by the Venetian commune in the territory of Tyre, which are now held partly by the crown and partly by milites and churches. Lasahephie, Laremedie, Homessie, Lahaya, Resconany, Herrin, Sedequie, Canna, Bofoley, Dercanon, Szorcoor, Derreme, Herdei, Harrbehel, Foraquye, Labasorie, Sahonye, Soquollye, Laiarodie, Lahemedie, Lanahemine, Labasorie, Saffoney, Tyrdube, Hyanoz, Hyanoz, Foquel, Queforcabel, Teyrfebne/Teyrsebne, the last of which, according to the testimony of VitaIis Galafarius, Tomas Dulce and others was lost to the crown through negligence when Dominicus Acotanto was baiulus, Guafarduim, Michelserquey, Beris, Migaydel, Maraque, Anderquifa, Maron, Affalquie, Bafaley, Brochey, Dordohaia, Terfelsay, Haymboaldelley, Mahalebfet, Sedim, the third part of the last of which, according to the testimony of Vitalis Galafarius, Thomas Dulce and others, was held by the Venetian commune until 40 years ago, but was lost on account of a boundary dispute between the baiulus dominus Pantaleo Barbo and the crown at the time when comes Henricus de Campania was lord of the kingdom, Saint Iorge, Zirisia, Nea, Lacassomya. It is not known how all the rights to all these casalia were lost, [apart from the 2 already mentioned]. (2) The crown retains a mill, above the one the Venetian commune now possesses. Many years ago the miller [molendinarius], who had rented the mill for 5 years, committed homicide and was arrested. The mill passed into royal hands. (Marsilio Zorzi, pp. 101, 135-71) (RRH no. 1114).
Oct. 1-31. Acre. Marsilius Georgius [Marsilio Zorzi] bajulus in Syria Venetorum lists Venetian possessions in the city and territory of Tyre. (I). He recounts how he was ordered by Doge Iacopo Tiepolo to provide an inventory of all Venetian possessions in the kingdom of Jerusalem, with a view to... more
sources: Marsilio Zorzi, pp. 101, 135-71 (RRH no. 1114)
initiator: Marsilius Georgius [Marsilio Zorzi] bajulus in Syria Venetorum
text: Before Aug.  Acre. Marsilius Ieorgius [Marsilius Zorzi], baiulus in Syria, lists Venetian properties [other than in or near Tyre], especially those in Acre. (I). He lists in the city of Acre. (1) In ruga furni: a stacio next to the house of Pandulfus, which returns each year in rent 24 besants; another stacio next door, returning 25 besants; 2 houses on the second level [in solario], returning respectively 20 and 42 besants; 2 small houses, one being next to the oven, returning respectively 7 and 10 besants; an oven, returning 150 besants. (2) Below the palatium in which the baiulus resides: 1 tabula at the head of the palacium, returning 13 besants; 5 habitationes in the solarium medium at the head of the palacium, 4 of which return 18 besants and one 17 and a half besants; a habitatio which is now vacant but which when occupied returns 16 besants; 6 staciones below the palacium, one of which returns 160 besants, 4 return 180 besants, and one returns 154 besants. (3) Between the palacium and the church of St Mark: 4 stationes, returning respectively, 184, 121, 100 and 115 besants, and a house on the way to the curia of the baiulus, which is only rented to merchants who come from Venice. When a garavana is in Acre, it is rented for 12 besants a month. (4) The tabulae or bancae situated around the logia. The first, which is next to the church door in the direction of the house where the baiulus resides, returns 25 besants and 18 karacta. The second, which is small, returns 12 besants. Of the other 6, 3 return 25 besants and 3 return respectively 18, 34 and 41 besants. (5) Below the great palatium of the fonticum, overlooking the road and square [campus], 16 stationes, of which one is situated towards the logia, another is called the statio de la Cocorda and a third is vacant. Of the 15 occupied stationes, 2 return 61 besants, 2 return 50 besants, 2 return 45 besants, one returns 35, one returns 33, one returns 60, one returns 55, one returns 45, and 4 return 40. (6) Within and below the great palacium of the fonticum. A statio, next to the logia, which is reserved for the use of the baiulus and his goods. A second statio, which is large, returns 7 besants a month when there is a garavana at Acre. A small camera in which resides Iohannes Gastaldio plazarius comunis; this is under another camera, where the plebanus lives and is treated as part of his stipend, which also consists of 36 besants and a suit of clothes each Christmas; 13 other camerae, one of which is small: 11 of these each return 3 besants a month and one 14 besants a year. A closed street within the fonticum which returns 3 besants a month. (7) On the first floor [in solario de medio] of the great palacium of the fonticum. 11 houses, 9 of which are leased on monthly terms when the caravana comes to Acre: 4 for 6 besants a month, one for 8, one for 10, one for 13, one for 14, one for 15. Of the two houses not rented, one [already mentioned] is shared by the plebanus and by Iohannes Gastaldus; the other - a small one - is the residence of one of the priests. (8) On the first floor of the upper part of the palacium, towards [the church of] St Demetrius. 4 houses, which are rented when the caravana comes to Acre, one for 4 besants a month and 3 for 5; and 6 camerae - 2 large and 4 small - the large being rented for 5 besants a month and the small for 3. 5 habitationes and 1 camera, used a stable when the caravana comes, next to St Demetrius. 4 of these, one being next to a cistern and another above the stable, are rented for 8, 12, 16 and 30 besants a year. The fifth is rented pro caravana at 8 besants [presumably at a monthly rate]. (9) A house in the fonticum, containing 11 camerae on lower and upper floors. It belongs to domina Pavia, whose ancestors have held it from the commune of Venice for a long time. She pays an annual rent to [the church of] St Mark of 7 besants. (10) A house in the fonticum and near the church containing the following: 2 habitationes, one being next to the stairs of the great palacium, returning respectively 9 and 22 besants a year; 2 camerae, used to store wood, lime and stone; a house, occupied by Buraffas plazarius, as part of his stipend, which also includes 36 besants and a suit of clothes presented every Christmas; 5 other habitationes, large and small, one being on the sea next to the tower and another by the stairs of the great palacium. 2 return 36 besants a year; the others 7, 12 and 16 besants respectively. (11) A tower next to the church and by the sea, containing a habitatio above and a camera below, rented respectively for 14 and 7 besants a month when the caravana comes; and in the basement [volta] there is a prison. (12) A house belonging to the commune on the other side of the road from the great palatium of the fonticum, bounded on the west by alms-houses [domus de helimosina]. It contains 3 stationes, one being rented for 20 besants a year and 2 for 43 besants, together with a habitatio above, which is rented for 20 besants. (13) A house recovered by the commune and shared with Pandulfus, out of which has been created 2 stationes, each returning 55 besants, and a habitatio above, returning 38 besants. (14) A house of the commune of Venice, overlooking its square [campus], in which are 2 stationes, each returning 70 besants, with 3 habitationes above, returning 20, 22 and 24 besants respectively. A machomaria, converted into sections and rented for 60 and c.36 besants. A house, bounded on the north by the house of Petrus Vasannus, with a statio below, rented for 30 besants, and 2 habitationes above, rented for 16 and 36 besants. A house, bought for the commune by Marsilius Ieorgius himself for 1200 besants, which is opposite the logia of the church of St Mark. It is shared with Balduinus de la Tregla and Nicolaos de Misina, the son of the late Leonardus Villanus. It contains a large statio and a small statio, with a habitatio above. The commune’s half share of the rents comes to 40, 30 and 12 besants respectively. There are 3 bance below the house. The half share of the rents returns in 2 cases 4  besants and in one 8 besants. (II). Marsilius lists infringements of the Venetians’ rights by the crown and its representatives in the kingdom of Jerusalem. (1) The crown demands the tax of terciaria from all Venetians who transport any people in their ships or vessels, when according to their privileges they should only be charged on pilgrims departing from the country. The government refuses to give the compensation agreed of 300 besants from the fonticum of Tyre. On the other hand, during the time Marsilius has held office, no Venetian has paid terciaria. (2) If any Venetian goes to Damascus or any Muslim land and buys merchandise, he has to pay in sales-tax in Acre of 8.33 [8 besants and 8 karacta] per cent and an exit tax of 4.16 [4 besants and 4 karacta] per cent should he wish to export to Venice, although he can resort to bribing an official [paciscatur cum illo, qui est super hoc pro rege]. (3) If any vessel sailing from Venice unloads in Tyre or any other city, and the merchants wish to transport their goods [merces] overland to Acre, they must pay 9.33 per cent [9 besants and a third]. (4) If any Venetian merchant should go to Damascus or any Muslim city and wishes to carry merchandise with him out of Acre, he must pay 1 karactum for every besant of the estimated worth of the merchandise. (5) The sale of slaves and horses brought into Acre attract a tax of 1 besant each. This has always been resisted by the Venetians, sometimes successfully. (III). Marsilius draws attention to the Venetian claims to a church and street [ruga] in Jerusalem and all the cities of the kingdom. He refers particularly to Ascalon, of which Venice claims a third. In that territory there are 72 casalia, with at least 200 families residing.
Before Aug.  Acre. Marsilius Ieorgius [Marsilius Zorzi], baiulus in Syria, lists Venetian properties [other than in or near Tyre], especially those in Acre. (I). He lists in the city of Acre. (1) In ruga furni: a stacio next to the house of Pandulfus, which returns each year in rent 24 besants... more
sources: Marsilio Zorzi, pp. 172-81 (RRH no. 1116)